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The Systems of
Order in Music


in Understanding as Reflected by Language

The Beginnings of
Musical History

New Sound Composer
of the 20th Century and the
Range of Intervals

to the Transcendental
Play of Music

Musical Insight into the Culture of Peoples

Musical Relationships

The Musical Path
to Self-Knowlegde



The Counterpoint

The Threefold Perfect
Form of the Harmony

Relations in Music


Peter Hübner
Founder of the
Micro Music Laboratories




  The Systems of Order in Music
The “New Sound” Composers of the 20th Century and the Range of Intervals

Even­tu­ally, with the con­struc­tion of valve in­stru­ments, the in­ter­est for these great, natu­ral main in­ter­vals faded, and the “new sound” com­pos­ers of the 20th cen­tury turned to even finer in­ter­vals of the ma­jor and minor sec­ond – that is, the space be­tween the sev­enth and eighth over­tone, the eighth and ninth over­tone; or the space be­tween the ninth and tenth over­tone, and the tenth and elev­enth over­tone re­spec­tively.

Mechanistic Differentiation in the Musical Macrocosm
At this point, how­ever, the new com­pos­ers be­gan to intimidate the mu­sic lover; for, even to the un­edu­cated ear, the discrepancy of the “forced marriage” be­tween the mi­cro­cosm and the mac­ro­cosm of mu­sic be­came clear; a marriage, in which the mi­cro­cosm pro­duces shrill dis­so­nances due to the lack of sen­si­tiv­ity of the mac­ro­cosm.

The Forced Marriage of Macrocosm and Microcosm of Music
The continu­ous play­ing of tones at too small in­ter­vals causes a friction be­tween their high over­tones, which are too closely spaced, and cre­ates a strange sharpness of shrill dis­so­nances, thus de­stroy­ing the com­pre­hen­sion of the in­ner con­tent of a com­po­si­tion – since they shift the at­ten­tion of the lis­tener, and even that of the mu­si­cian, in­ces­santly from the immanent logic of the com­po­si­tion to the gross com­bat of over­tones. Thus, each over­tone fights its neighbour for su­pe­riority, some­thing we per­ceive as shrill, and reject as un­pleas­ant.

The Friction between High Overtones
This leads us to twelve-tone mu­sic and to the tech­nique of serial com­po­si­tion of the 20th cen­tury – the so-called avantgarde.

The Twelve-Tone Music and the Serial Composing Technique
Not that the great clas­sics had been un­able to write in sec­onds or to pro­duce dis­so­nances, but in the mixture of the outer-mu­si­cal mac­ro­cosm and the in­ner-tonal mi­cro­cosm they rather knew the natu­ral limits, which exist as long as the mu­si­cian does not mas­ter the mi­cro­cosm of mu­sic.

There­fore, the great clas­si­cal com­pos­ers from Bach to Wagner only ap­proached, but never crossed, the bor­der to dis­har­mony, and thus cre­ated mostly har­mo­ni­ous mu­sic.

The Tonal Orientation of the Great Composers in the Classical Era
This in­di­cates that they were guided by their natu­ral in­ner hear­ing, and that to them a lined sheet of paper was not a draw­ing board for the con­struc­tion of mu­sic.
With per­fect con­fi­dence the great clas­si­cal mu­si­cians sim­ply brought to paper what they heard within.

Beyond Constructing Music on the Drawing Board
  With kind permission of AAR EDITION INTERNATIONAL